Gentlemen`s agreements were a widespread discriminatory tactic that, according to reports, was more common than restrictive alliances to maintain the homogeneity of upper-class neighborhoods and suburbs in the United States.  The nature of these agreements has made it extremely difficult to prove or prosecute them and have been long after the U.S. Supreme Court`s decisions in Shelley v. Kraemer and Barrows v. Jackson.  One source indicates that gentlemen`s agreements „undoubtedly exist,” but that their use has declined sharply.  The concessions were agreed in a six-point note a year later. The agreement was followed by the reception of students of Japanese origin in public schools.