More generally, writers have prefisted Marxist and feminist interpretations of treaties. Attempts have been made to develop the purpose and nature of the treatise as a phenomenon of global understanding, in particular the relational theory of contracts, originally developed by American scientists Ian Roderick Macneil and Stewart Macaulay, which was based, at least in part, on the theory of contracts of the American scientist Lon L. Fuller, while American scientists have been at the forefront of developing theories of economic contracts, which have focused on issues relating to transaction costs and the so-called „Efficient Breach” theory. The applicant can sometimes prove the existence of an offence, but he is not able to prove with sufficient certainty concrete harm. In these cases, a court may obtain a nominal amount of money (e.g.B. one dollar) in recognition of the negative consequences of the offence. Contractual rights exist on both sides of the treaty, but it is very likely that they will be different depending on the content of the contract. Each agreement, of course, has a different set of rights than a different agreement. One party may have the right to acquire a service, while the other party may have the right to provide a service to that party. Contractual rights refer to contractual (but other) obligations that are the performance obligations that each party has under the terms of the agreement. In both the European Union and the United States, however, the need to prevent discrimination has undermined the full level of freedom of contract. Legislation on equality, equal pay, racial discrimination, discrimination on the basis of disability, etc. has set limits on full contractual freedom.
 For example, the Civil Rights Act of 1964 limited private racial discrimination against African Americans.  In the early twentieth century, the United States experienced the Lochner era, where the U.S. Supreme Court established economic rules based on freedom of contract and the consultation clause; These decisions were eventually overturned and the Supreme Court found compliance with laws and regulations that restrict freedom of contract.  The U.S. Constitution contains a contractual clause, but it has been interpreted to limit only the retroactive depreciation of contracts.  In specific and limited cases, the court may require a „specific performance,” which means that the injuring party is required to fulfill its contractual obligations. . . .