Ministerial Declaration on the TRIPS Agreement and Public Health, adopted on 14 November 2001 (Doha Declaration) 8 In the WTO, a multi-lateral agreement is an agreement in which only a few members participate, while a multilateral agreement involves all members. Governments also play a supervisory role and can act to prevent patent holders from abusing these rights (anti-competitive practices) or obstructing technology transfer. The TRIPS agreement provides for limited exceptions to patent rights. These exceptions should not be unreasonable with the normal use of the patent. These exceptions are used in a wide variety of cases, and in particular in different cases: the agreement covers a wide range of topics, from copyrights and trademarks to the layout of integrated circuits and trade secrets. Patents for the protection of medicines and other products are also part of this agreement. The decision approves the agreement establishing the WTO on behalf of the European Community (now the EU). The principles are those of national treatment and treatment to the most favoured nation. This means that WTO members cannot normally discriminate against their trading partners. If they give a particular favor to a colleague (for example. B a lower tariff rate for one of its products), they must do the same for all other WTO members. The agreement aims to ensure that appropriate rules for intellectual property protection are applied in all Member States, based on the fundamental obligations set out by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) in the various intellectual property rights agreements, in particular the Paris Convention on Industrial Property. Many new or stricter provisions are introduced in areas that are not covered by existing conventions or where existing conventions are insufficient.
During the multilateral negotiations of the Uruguay Round (1986-1994) of the World Trade Organization (WTO), the EU signed an agreement on aspects of trade-related intellectual property rights (TRIPS). Pharmaceutical patents are part of the intellectual property rights that the agreement seeks to protect. The EU has long had exclusive jurisdiction over a common trade policy. However, the scope of early trade agreements was limited and, when WTO agreements were negotiated in the early 1990s, the Commission and Member States disagreed on the extent to which the EU was responsible for the conclusion of the new agreements. The Court of Justice was invited to: 9 Council decision 94/800/9 EC on the conclusion, on behalf of the EU, of agreements concluded on behalf of the EU in the multilateral negotiations of the Uruguay Round (1986-1994). if a product (for example. B a drug) or a process (a method of making an ingredient for a drug). To qualify for a patent, an invention must be new, inventive and industrially applicable. In addition, patented inventions must be disclosed so that others can investigate the invention even if it is protected by a patent. 18.The three international conventions taken into account in this report are previous multilateral or multilateral agreement protocols.8 In any event, the United Kingdom is already a party to the original agreement, but is only a party to the protocol because of its membership of the EU.