The nine countries in the Nile Basin initiative were Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Since then, South Sudan has been included in the initiative. Article 15 of the Framework Cooperation Agreement creates a permanent institution called the Nile Basin Commission. It will be a supranational unit, with a broader authority and mandate to approve and approve national investment plans and programmes for investments in water resources that sovereign Member States intend to implement along the Nile. It will therefore serve as a forum for cooperation and a clearing house for all measures envisaged for all Member States. It will also promote and facilitate the implementation of the Framework Cooperation Agreement and facilitate cooperation between Nile Basin States in the conservation, management and development of the Nile Basin and its waters. This agreement will only bind the countries that have signed and ratified it. From gender inclusion to information gathering, electricity generation and transfer, the NBI supports cooperation in several key areas of the Nile Basin. For example, the NBI has led to a number of energy projects, ranging from those that expand and connect transmission lines to connect connections to projects that promote responsible development and hydroelectric power generation.
They have also become familiar with the development of climate change resilience projects, the preservation and restoration of watersheds and benefits for women. In addition, the institutionalization of knowledge sharing by the NBI is less devastated by floods, and the adoption of regional dam management standards reduces the risk of dam failure. Both the 1929 and 1959 agreements caused discontent in other Nile states and demands to amend the pact rejected by Egypt. The leaders of Egypt, Ethiopia and Sudan signed a cooperation agreement on the Great Renaissance Dam in 2015 to ease tensions. The agreement is expected to pave the way for continued diplomatic cooperation. Fundamental principles of the agreement include prioritizing downstream countries for electricity generated by electricity generated by the dam, a dispute resolution mechanism and compensation for damages. The initiative, founded in 1999, brought together the nine countries of the Nile basin at the time to develop the river in a cooperative manner, share essential socio-economic benefits and promote peace and security in the region. The two countries have been mired in controversial negotiations for years and have yet to reach a comprehensive water-sharing agreement. The 1959 agreement was signed between Egypt and Sudan. It reaffirmed the 1929 agreement, but gave Sudan 18 billion cubic metres of water, while Egypt retained 55 billion cubic metres of water per year and left nothing to the Upper Nile countries, as it was thought that they would still be dependent on rainy agriculture. That is why these agreements are now rejected by the other eight countries of the Nile Basin Initiative. They want the unfair status quo to be overturned, while Sudan and Egypt still want the new agreement to give them the right to accept the use of Nile waters by other countries in the Nile basin.
The agreement between Egypt and Sudan, which complemented the previous agreement, gave Egypt the right to 55.5 billion cubic meters of Nile water per year and Sudan 18.5 billion cubic meters per year. Progress in cooperation in the area of common water resources in the Nile basin has not gone unsealed.